As I say, I recognise that it is necessary to have National Service and that it should be fairly administered, and that there are these three categories of the population who were exempted in the terms of the original Bill—that is to say, the coalminers who actually work at the face, the agricultural labourers and the Merchant Navy. I believe that exceptions to this rule should be made only in cases where it has been shown conclusively that deferment is of greater benefit and importance to the country than call-up. But I do think the time has come when the Ministry of Defence and the Service Departments together, as they rely more than anybody on the proficiency of these technological people, should tackle this problem. Also it is not uninteresting to note that when the last war broke out there were about 3,000 stewards who suddenly became redundant, and the majority of those men, because of their knowledge of the sea, were immediately transformed into gunners. 448 444 The maximum annual number is limited to fifty. I am told that these men are wanted for catering, but that they also man lifeboats, which most of us would do in case of need, and do whatever else they can to help about the ship. They are not the products of inherited privilege, but of innate intelligence. National Interest Exceptions for Certain Travelers from the Schengen Area, United Kingdom, and Ireland. National Insurance Contributions, as all other workers do: % There are 1,200,000 people working over state pension age; % Lots of people stay in the same job, to whom the current exemption comes as an unexpected and unneeded pay rise; % At least £1.5 billion extra National Insurance revenue could be … That a highly-educated doctor of science doing first-class work in the subject in which he has been trained at great public expense, should be called up to peel potatoes whilst an unskilled waiter is exempted in order to serve potatoes on a luxury liner, is surely neither right nor reasonable. Our main duties are to preserve Government records and to set standards in information management and re-use. I was under the impression that the noble Lord was linking his Motion with the unfortunate happenings in regard to a few members of the Mercantile Marine branches a few weeks ago; and I certainly was under the impression that he had no knowledge of the machinery which existed in the Mercantile Marine for the purpose of dealing with the points which I was under the impression he was going to raise. It was originally suggested that they should be under different regulations, but that would do very great harm. With very few exceptions, people, in Parliament and outside, believe that National Service is a necessity at the present time. The definition of a merchant seaman is a person employed or engaged in any capacity on board any ship, and thus the catering department personnel are included in the deferment. The first was during the First World War and the second ran from 1939 to 1960. The current Executive Order is 13526. I am not altogether accurate in saying that there is no exemption, because I believe that clergymen are completely exempt from National Service; but we are not talking about them. I should like again to raise the question which Lord Glyn, Lord Hall and others have raised—a point that bears very closely on my own knowledge—and that is in connection with scientists. I think it was realised at the time that there might be a few men who would join the catering department in order to avoid National Service; but, on balance, it was considered at the time that this comparatively small risk must be accepted. Exemption 1 Classification is governed by the President through Executive Orders. 2677 Exemption from the requirement to hold a licence: applicable turnover 8.—(1) A person who provides health care services for the purposes of the NHS (P) is exempt I rather gathered that that was his view, but apparently that is not so. In the first place, they are not exempted from military service at all, and two years' service in the Merchant Navy is not counted as an equivalent to two years' National Service; but, provided the man carries out his duties properly at sea, his call-up is held in suspense until he is twenty-six years of age. Ultimately, exemption depends on the results of the medical check-up and the decision of the AFC. The maintenance charges of all the Services for these complicated weapons is something which is often not recognised, and is largely due to the fact that there is inadequate training in the handling of them. They also serve who…stand and wait, and the R.N.R. I very much regret the inconvenience which I have caused to the noble Lord, Lord Cherwell, and others. An extreme case of the kind is the one which comes most nearly home to me—namely, that of the really high-grade research workers in the universities. But in fact it continually happens that if a man who is of calling-up age ceases to be satisfactory in his service at sea, his papers come through and he is called up in the ordinary way. In the United Kingdom, conscription has existed for two periods in modern times. These occupations are, first of all, coalmining—miners are exempt if they work underground, but not if they work on the surface; the Merchant Navy and agriculture. My Lords, it is the fact that a man is deferred so long as he stays in that particular job. So far as the public are concerned, all they want to be sure of is that the scheme is properly administered, without fear or favour. There has lately been every indication that other countries are maintaining the lead in this field. No one would deny that at all. 449 Sometimes at the most critical stage men are taken away and lose the opportunity that would otherwise come to them of continuing their research and development work. § And this merely in order to fit them to fight when everybody knows that, far from being allowed to fight, on the outbreak of war they would instantly be drafted back to their laboratories. Noticed a typo? The Air Force depends on how efficient the manufacturers are. That is true, perhaps, in a lesser degree in regard to the efficiency of the catering staff. Last year, however, I gather that there were over 8,000 cases of emergency! 433 My Lords, in common with some of your Lordships who have spoken, when I first looked at the terms of the Motion which has been moved by my noble friend this afternoon I did not think he would make the sort of speech to which we have listened. But such men are in a small minority, because in a modern ship engineers of all kinds have to play a much larger part than the deck staff. I do not believe for a moment that he would wish to be put in a special category. I now find myself in this position: that the noble Lord has spent about one-third of his time eulogising all branches of the Mercantile Marine and has then gone on to another subject. That, I am sure, is also quite true. Yes, he does get called up, because he has to take his degree before he is twenty-six. I have mentioned only one particular class of young man whose exemption from National Service would be far more in the national interest than the exemption of these pseudo-seamen, but there are many others in other professions—for instance, statisticians—who would certainly be drafted into the Ministries in war time. Entirely from military Service because they proposed to undertake agricultural work technicians and to! 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